Macchiaioli—Italian Impressionism (1870-1920)

France's greatest conribution to the history of art is the late 19C Impressionist movement

Tuscany had a brief moment in a very localized limelight again from the 1860s to around 1900 when the Macchiaioli, a group of artists in Florence and Livorno, junked the old styles and concentrated on exploring the structure of light and color in painting, concerned with the effect of the individual macchie, or marks of paint on the canvas. In effect, it was kind of a Tuscan Impressionism.

Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908) was the best of the Macchiaioli, fond of battle scenes and landscapes populated by the Maremma's long-horned white cattle.

Macchiaioli—Italian Impressionism art artists with works in Italy

Self Portrait with Beret (1886) by Claude Monet, in a Private Collection (Photo by unknown)

The king of the Impressionist movement

Self-Portrait (c. 1875) of Paul Cézanne, in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris (Photo courtesy of the Musée d'Orsay)

A great Post-Impressionism French painter of lovely landscapes, portraits, and still-lifes

Self Portrait, aged 21 (1855) by Edgar Degas, in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris (Photo courtesy of the Musée d'Orsay)

French Impressionist master of ballet dancers—whether painted, pastel, or cast in bronze

Self Portrait (1889) by Paul Gauguin, in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris (Photo courtesy of the Musée d'Orsay)

The Post-Impressionist who went native in the South Pacific

Photograph of Édouard Manet in 1874 by Nadar (Photo by Nadar)

This 19C French painter paved the way for the Impressionists to come

Self Portrait (1903) by Camille Pissarro, in the Tate Britain, London (Photo courtesy of Tate Britain)

An Impressionist turned pointillist—and great teacher of other painters

Self Portrait (1910) by Pierre Auguste Renoir, in a Private Collection (Photo by Renoir)

An Impressionist fond of apple-cheeked women and children

Photograph of Auguste Rodin c. 1898 by Dornac (Photo by Dornac)

The greatest sculptor since Michelangelo

Portrait of Georges Seurat in 1888 (Photo by Unknown)

The post-Impressionist famous for making tiny dots meld into an image