The major neighborhoods, streets, squares, and landmarks of Florence
Florence flanks both sides of the Arno River, with the bulk of the historic center north of the river.
Here are the major neighborhoods for visitors.
The western side of Florence's historic center between the train station and the river
The northern stretches of the historic center, home to Michelangelo's David and the central market
The quiet eastern edge of Florence's historic center, home to many excellent restaurants
Fiesole is the Etruscan village next-door, a Tuscan hilltown just a city bus ride from downtown Florence
Personally, I am partial to the Streetwise Florence map—amazingly detailed yet tiny, a foldable and laminated map that slips into your (deeper) pocket.
Unlike in other Italian cities, there are two systems of street numbering here: black (nero) and red (rosso).
Black numbers are for residential and office buildings and hotels.
Red numbers identify commercial enterprises, such as restaurants and stores. When written in an address, these indicated by an "r" or "R" or "/R" following the number—though the little number posrted by the doorway on the building itself will simply be painted red.
Even more confusingly, the two numbering systems operate independently of each other. The doorways on a given street might run 1r, 2r, 3r, 1 (black), 4r, 2, 5r, 6r, 7r, 3, 4, 8r...
For years, Florence has proclaimed that it's busily renumbering the whole city without the color system—plain-old 1, 3, 5 on one side, 2, 4, 6 on the other—and will release the new standard soon, but no one is quite sure when. Florentines reluctant for their addresses to change have been holding up the process.
This is all compounded by the fact that the color codes occur only in the centro storico and other older sections of town. Outlying districts didn't bother with the codes and use the international standard system common in the United States, Canada, and most of the rest of Europe.